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Currently available questionnaires have a number of limitations, one of the most important being the fact that they are often based on outdated theories.

The State‐Trait Anxiety Inventory,

Recent test anxiety research has shown that test anxiety consists of two components: worry (concerns about one’s performance) and emotionality (perception of autonomic arousal and unpleasant feeling states, see Zeidner, 1998).

The State‐Trait <u>Anxiety</u> <u>Inventory</u>,

Anxiety- Pediatric - Boston Children's

2Testing such hypotheses requires a tool for measuring STA.

The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait

Another example is self-efficacy theory, which considers that the impact of self-efficacy on performance is at least partially mediated by state anxiety (Bandura, 1989).


Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory 1983:

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